The official websites of Steinway & Sons, and Steinway Musical Instruments,

The diary of William Steinway (transcribed by Edwin M. Good), 1861 – 1896, Smithsonian Institution,

LaGuardia and Wagner Archives, LaGuardia Community College, City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Ave., Room E-238, Long Island City, NY 11101,

New York Times Article Archive,

Music Trade Review Online Library,

United States Patents and Trademarks Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314,

Google Patents Search,

New York Passenger Arrival Records, 1820 – 1957,

“The Story of the Steinways”, by Elbert Hubbard (1921)

People and Pianos, a Century of Service to Music“, by Theodore E. Steinway (1953)

“The Piano: A History”, by Cyril Ehrlich (1976)

Steinway“, by Ronald V. Ratcliffe (1989)

The Steinway Saga“, by Donald W. Fostle (1995)

88 Keys, the Making of a Steinway Piano“, by Miles Chapin (1997)

Steinway & Sons“, by Richard K. Lieberman (1997)

Piano, the Making of a Steinway Concert Grand“, by James Barron (2006)

Personal interviews with individuals associated with Steinway family and Steinway & Sons, and numerous additional documents and resources, available in libraries and online.